[maemo-developers] Java acceleration/Jazelle

From: Sebastian Mancke asteban at gmx.de
Date: Thu Jul 12 02:23:13 EEST 2007
Hi Simon,

nice research !!! This seams easier (and more os independent) than my
thoughts with an interrupt in kernel mode. Although we can not say for
sure, that Jazelle is implemented the way, the patent describes, this is
a very good point to get a forthcome.


Simon Pickering schrieb:
> Hi all,
> If this is all already known please let me know and I'll stop waffling, 
> but some Googling couldn't find anything, so I'll present what I've 
> found thus far.
>> I had a look around for some more information and found the patent 
>> for Jazelle: US patent number 7089539.
>> Google link here (with figures, which makes understanding it far 
>> easier): http://www.google.com/patents?id=iMt6AAAAEBAJ&dq=7089539
> I've finally got round to reading all of the patent in question.
> I've changed my mind about exception handlers (see my previous posts 
> with the same subject line). I believe that the processor internally 
> handles any exception caused by an unrecognised Java bytecode, and (and 
> this is where a bit of interpretation/reading between the lines comes 
> in) automatically switches to ARM mode and jumps to an address 
> specified in a pointer table provided by the application running the 
> JVM (i.e. us).
> If you look at Fig.4 in the patent, for example, you can see a snippet 
> of code. This is one of the chunks of code that would be jumped to 
> (pointed to by the pointer table, which will be 256 pointers long, one 
> for each bytecode) and implements the iadd bytecode.
> I've repeated the code fragment below with comments above each line:
> /* increment bytecode pointer (R14) and load value pointed to by R14 into R4.
>     This is performed so that we have the bytecode value of the *next* bytecode
>     (i.e. not the one that couldn't be handled) in R4. We move the Java
>     'program counter' register, R14, along by one before we do this (in fact it
>     does R4=*(R14+1) then R14=R14+1, but same in the end). */
> LDRB R4, [R14, #1]!
> /* decrement Rstack by 4, then pop first operand from stack into R1
>     This is part of handling the actual instruction, in this case an 
> iadd, so we
>     need to pop the values from the stack */
> LDR R1,[Rstack, #-4]!
> /* decrement Rstack by 4, then pop first operand from stack into R0
>     As above */
> LDR R0,[Rstack, #-4]!
> /* Get address of next code fragment for next bytecode
>     load into R12 the value from Rexc + (R4 x 2^2).
>     In this step we look into the pointer table (which contains pointers to
>     ARM code fragments that handle each Java bytecode) and we load the address
>     of the code fragment for the next Java instruction (not the one we're
>     currently handling) which we loaded into R4 on the first line */
> LDR R12,[Rexc, R4, LSL #2]
> /* R0 = R0 + R1
>     Here we simply perform the add operation that this code fragment is
>     handling*/
> ADD R0,R0,R1
> /* Store R0 in Rstack and increment Rstack by 4 (pre or post? post probably)
>     Here we save the results of the add operation that we're handling in this
>     code snippet*/
> STR R0,[Rstack],#4
> /* Branch to Java
>     This command takes as its operand the address of the ARM software snippet
>     used to handled the bytecode. Not (it would appear) the address of the Java
>     bytecode to execute. The address of the bytecode should be in R14. The
>     Jazelle hardware decides whether Jazelle is present and enabled and chooses
>     whether to jump to the bytecode and enter Java mode, or to stay in ARM mode
>     and 'emulate' the instruction */
> BXJ R12
> Note that the actual implementation of the iadd instruction (popping 
> twice, adding then pushing) is mixed in with the preparations to handle 
> the next bytecode/re-enter Java mode. Afaiu, this is done to make the 
> code more efficient and avoid stalls.
> So you can see that the code has already worked out where it needs to 
> jump to in  either Java or ARM 'emulation' mode (the latter is done to 
> speed up processing should Jazelle be disabled or the bytecode be 
> another one that's not handled by the hardware).
> One curious point about this code is that I was under the impression 
> that the stack was held in registers [1], rather than at some address 
> as is indicated by the pop instructions. It may be that the Jazelle 
> hardware does in fact hold the top stack elements in registers and 
> flushes them to memory when the unrecognised Java bytecode exception is 
> caused. The question then is which register actually holds this memory 
> address (ie. Rstack in the code above)? The same article says that R6 
> holds the stack pointer, so perhaps this is used...?
> The other register that needs to be determined is Rexc, which is the 
> one that points to the base of the pointer table which contains the 
> pointers to the ARM code snippets. But it looks like accesses to this 
> table are only handled in the ARM snippets (which 'we' would provide), 
> so it then becomes a question of which spare register can be used to 
> store this address and won't be overwritten.
> There are of course a number of other patents that were from around the 
> same time. Not sure whether any of the others will have any useful info 
> in them. For that matter I wonder why ARM provided some of the register 
> names/numbers, but not others?
> Time to brush up on my inline asm, and to dig out my Java 2 Virtual 
> Machine book and make up some test (byte)codes...
> Simon
> 1. 
> http://www.ftponline.com/javapro/2002_06/magazine/columns/javatogo/page3.aspx
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